Consonant Replacement

 

The sounds of some words change, depending on the combination of letters used to form the word. Two such sound changes are the flap and the glottal stop

The Flap

A flap occurs in three situations.

1. A flap occurs when a ‘t’ comes between two vowels. The pronunciation of the ‘t’
in these incidences sounds like a ‘d’ and is said very quickly.

Listen to these sound changes. The first word is with proper enunciation, the second word is with the sound changes. Then the word is used in a sentence.

 

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water becomes wader        Do you need some water?
 

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letter become ledder          The letter was in the mail box. 
 

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bottle becomes boddle      The bottle broke when it hit the floor.
 

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butter becomes budder     The butter melted in the sun.

 

2. Flaps also occur when a ‘d’ comes between two vowels. The ‘d’ is still
pronounced with a d sound, but it is said very quickly. In the normal
pronunciation of the d sound the tip of the tongue is placed on the
tooth ridge (the area where the top front teeth meet the top of
the mouth) before the expiration of air to produce the sound.

      With a flap, the tip of the tongue barely touches the tooth ridge
and the ‘d’ sound is made very quickly.

Listen to these sound changes. The first word is with proper enunciation, the second word is with the sound changes. Then the word is used in a sentence.

 

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medical           She is a medical student.
 

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sediment       The sediment on the river bottom is course sand.
 

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candence       Drums keep the cadence in a marching band.
 

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cider              This apple cider is great.
 

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spider            A spider has eight legs.

 

3. The third flap occurs when with linking of the consonant final letter of one word
and the vowel letter of the next. (see section on linking)

Listen to these sound changes. The first phrase is with proper enunciation, the
second phrase is with the sound changes. Then the word is used in a sentence.

 

 

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“right away”    becomes righ(d) da way     I’l get your bags right away, sir.
 

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“what if”    becomes whad dif      What if we go to Paris for vacation?
 

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“might I”    becomes migh(d) di       Might I suggest a new tie?

 

 

The Glottal Stop

When a ‘t’ is followed by a vowel + n syllable  (eaten), the ‘t’ sound is replace with a glottal stop, which is a complete closing of the vocal cords for a short moment. A glottal stop sound can be heard in the pronunciation of the negative uh uh.

Listen to these sound changes. The first word is with proper enunciation, the second word is with the sound changes. Then the word is used in a sentence.

 

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“eaten” becomes ea’n                      Have you eaten yet?
 

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“satin” becomes sa’n                        Satin sheets are nice to sleep on.
 

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“sentence” becomes se’ence         This sentence makes no sense.
 

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“mountain” becomes moun’n           I’m not much of a mountain climber.
 

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“getting” becomes ge’n                    I’m getting to old for this
 

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“button” becomes but’n                    Sam lost a button on his shirt.



How to pronounce flaps and glottal stops in English -www.pronunciationtips.com